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Monday, February 6, 2017

Political Science 1 – National & California Governments Globalyceum Exam No. 2

Dr. Richard Tahvildaran-Jesswein (Office Phone 310-434-3541)
Political Science 1 – National & California Governments

Globalyceum Exam No. 2

1. De Tocqueville saw political groups as a "necessary evil" in American democracy.

2. If more political centrists were elected to Congress
a. It would probably work less well with the president.
b. It would lead to the election of more third-party candidates.
c. It would not be able to decide on anything.
d. There would be less gridlock.

3. In The Federalist, No. 10, Madison argued
a. All of these
b. That "the various and unequal distribution of property" fueled faction.
c. That those who had and did not have property would always be contending with one another and form interest groups to carry on their battles.
d. That faction and class divisions fueled populist uprisings.

4. In the 1940s and 50s, why did African American civil rights organizations pursue their agenda in the federal courts?
a. The federal court finally had more Democratic than Republican appointees.
b. The Congress in this period was actually hostile to their cause.
c. The state courts were sympathetic but weak.
d. The presidents in this period did not support their cause.

5. Which of the following statements about conservatives is true?
a. Conservatives tend to favor higher taxes.
b. None of these.
c. Conservatives tend to support larger government.
d. Conservatives tend to favor more government regulation of business.

6. Affirmative advocacy
a. Has a proactive agenda
b. Actively seeks out coalitions and works with others at the state and local level
c. All of these
d. Looks for over-represented and under-represented issues in setting the agenda for activity

7. Which of the following is NOT a social movement?
a. The Tea Party
b. EPA
c. #Black Lives Matter
d. DREAMers

8. According to Jackson, the digital revolution has given us more information about the candidates,
a. But the information is not always accurate.
b. But it is not very detailed.
c. And the information is usually quite accurate.
d. And the candidates usually approve of the things written about them.

9. An example of an organization which claims to represent a large demographic group is
a. All of these.
b. The Japanese American Citizen's Leagues (JACL).
c. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
d. The National Organization of Women (NOW).

10. American political parties
a. Have become essential to democracy, according to most scholars.
b. Make democracy possible, according to Greenberg and Page.
c. All of these.
d. Have become an integral part of American politics.

11. What is incumbency advantage?
a. The candidate listed at the top of the ballot is more likely to get elected.
b. The incumbent has a very good chance of getting re-elected if he or she runs again.
c. The candidate uses his position to enrich him or herself.
d. The candidate can tap into the federal government to get money to run for re-election.

12. The Electoral College was created
a. In 1824 and then later adapted in 1870, to make sure that the popular vote of the people was counted properly.
b. In 1787, when the Constitution was written.
c. In 1867, after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, when Congress decided to elect the president by popular vote of the people.
d. In 1801, after the first disastrous presidential election when two people were elected for president--Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.

13. Extreme and persistent polarization of members of Congress has been a feature of American politics since about
a. The 1960s.
b. The late 1970s
c. 2008.
d. WWII.

14. An example of a “public good” is
a. National defense.
b. All of these.
c. Firefighters.
d. Public libraries.
15. The higher your income status, the more likely you are to
a. All of these.
b. Do political campaign work.
c. Participate in a political campaign meeting.
d. Give a political campaign donation.

16. Where are red states located geographically in the US?
a. On the coasts
b. On the West Coast and around the Great Lakes
c. In the Midwest and the South
d. In the Midwest

17. When the Founders drafted the US Constitution, Senators were elected by
a. The voters directly.
b. None of these.
c. Members of the state legislatures.
d. The Electoral College.

18. The four types of issues that advocacy groups deal with are
a. Universal issues, majority issues, discrimination issues, and advantaged sub-group issues
b. Universal discrimination issues, majority-minority issues, advantage sub-group issues, and disadvantaged sub-group issues
c. Universal issues, majority issues, disadvantaged sub-group issues, and advantaged sub-group issues
d. Majority issues, disadvantaged sub-group issues, advantaged sub-group issues, and Social Security issues

19. Between 1988 and 2014, the political identification that has grown the most is
a. Democrat
b. Republican
c. None has grown significantly
d. Independent

20. One method that schools use to politically socialize young people is
a. Ask students to read newspapers.
b. Ask student to participate in mock elections.
c. Tell students who to vote for.
d. Ask students to watch TV news.

21. In addition to the legislative branch, advocacy groups target the executive and judicial branches.

22. Which country has mandatory voting laws?
a. South Africa
b. The United States
c. Great Britain
d. Turkey

23. Intersectional marginalized people are
a. Those who have multiple historic disadvantages in the political system, such as women of color.
b. Those who are marginalized in some states or regions but not in others.
c. Those who have tried to work within the political process but are forced to “go to the streets” to advocate for their issues.
d. Those who do not agree with the Republican or Democratic Parties’ principles.

24. According to Jackson, primary election debates are very important because
a. The debates educate the voters about new issues and party positions on those issues.
b. All of these.c. Lesser-known candidates can get recognition with a good debate performance.d. Voters can compare the many candidates side by side.

25. James Madison
a. All of these.
b. Said that "liberty is to faction what air is to fire."
c. Thought that factions would simply turn into political parties and become harmless.
d. Believed that political interest groups should be suppressed.

26. Voters who like a third party are nevertheless inclined to vote for a dominant party candidate for fear they will waste their votes.

27. According to the political scientist, V.O. Key,
a. The party in the electorate consist of voters who identify with it consistently and support its candidates regularly in elections.
b. All of these.
c. The party in government includes appointees and elected officials who run for office under the party's label.
d. The party organization refers to its relatively permanent structure.

28. It is sometimes called "first-past-the-post" and sometimes "winner-take-all," but this kind of election means
a. The top two candidates have to have a run off election.
b. The candidates have to have run-off elections until one wins two thirds of the votes.
c. None of these.
d. No matter how many votes are cast and how many candidates the one with the most votes wins.

29. Because of the winner-take-all Electoral College system, a presidential candidate with a narrow popular vote win
a. Will only show a very small margin in the Electoral College vote.
b. Can still have a very large margin of victory in the Electoral College vote.
c. None of these.
d. Will have about the same percentages in the Electoral College.

30. The "explosion" of national advocacy groups representing people of color, women, and low-income people resulted in
a. None of these.
b. Nearly 10,000 groups.
c. Actually a pretty small number--only 200 groups.
d. The founding of over 700 groups.

31. What does the unit rule mean?
a. When the candidate wins 270 units, he or she becomes president of the US.
b. A candidate gets the proportion of the Electoral College votes that corresponds with the percentage of votes he or she won.
c. When a candidate wins most of the popular votes in a state, he or she takes all of the Electoral College votes.
d. There are only five units in the country, and the presidential candidate must win at least 3 of these.

32. The women’s movement can be very active on an issue such as affirmative action in higher education, which afffects their more affluent members, but overlook welfare reform, an important issue for their more disadvantaged or marginalized members.

33. Strolovitch has found that African American organizations are likely to
a. Spend more time on issues supporting their advantaged sub-groups, like affirmative action in higher education.
b. Spend more time on issues that affect African American women, like childcare
c. Spend more time on issues that affect African American men, like prison reform.
d. Spend more time on issues supporting their disadvantaged subgroups, like welfare reform.

34. The main agents of political socialization are
a. Community leaders.
b. Schools.
c. All of these.
d. Family.

35. The Electoral College reflects in its numbers
a. The methods described in the 13th Amendment.
b. Decisions made in a bill that is passed in Congress the year before the election.
c. The representation in the Senate and House.
d. The selection of the electors of the College each election year.

36. Who is a single-issue voter?
a. Someone who only casts a vote when his or issue is on the ballot.
b. Someone who is only interested in domestic issues and not foreign policy.
c. Someone who works for issues campaigns and does not vote for candidates.
d. Someone who has a strong opinion on a single issue so that he or she only considers that issue when voting.

37. Universal issues
a. Affect all people in the US, regardless of race, gender, sexuality, disability, etc.
b. Affect all able-bodied people, but not the disabled.
c. Affect citizens but not immigrants.
d. Refer mostly to issues that affect the majority white population, not minorities.

38. Are Americans more likely to vote in presidential elections than other types of elections?
a. No, because Americans are more interested in local issues.
b. Only in years when the presidential election is particularly interesting.
c. Yes, consistently American participate in presidential elections over other elections.
d. No, Americans like to vote for direct democracy issues rather than indirect democracy representation.

39. Why are interest groups, political organiztions, and social movements so numerous in the US?
a. Because of the 1st Amendment, which protects speech. association, and the right to petition the government for redress of grievances.
b. Because federalism and the separation of powers have created multiple points of access to political institutions.
c. All of these.
d. Because the way people are elected to Congress does not do a very good job of representing minorities, who have to find other ways of getting their needs met.

40. In an open primary, Independents
a. Are only allowed to vote if they register with one of the parties.
b. Are allowed to vote for only two candidates.
c. Are allowed to vote for a candidate from one of the political parties.
d. Are not allowed to vote for a candidate from one of the political parties.

41. Voters in the Millennial Generation (born 1981-2000), are more likely to Independents than Democrats or Republicans and more likely to be Republicans than Democrats.

42. As sample size increases, the margin of error
a. Is greater than or equal to the margin of error.
b. Increases.
c. Decreases.
d. Stays the same.

43. When is the candidate's website NOT a good source of information?
a. To find more information about the candidate's biography.
b. To find out which prominent people and organizations support the candidate.
c. To find out more about the candidate's positions on the issues.
d. To find an unbiased account of the candidate's voting history.

44. According to Jackson, the candidates use presidential debates
a. All of these.
b. To show empathy for voters' problems.
c. To distinguish themselves on the issues.
d. To introduce their favorable personal characteristics to the voters.

45. An example of an interest group offering a benefit to encourage people to join their organization is a. Congressmen providing assistance to constituents.
b. The American Association of Retire People (AARP) offering travel discounts.
c. Hospitals offering charitable care to indigent patients.
d. District attorneys offering reduced sentences for testimony about a crime.

46. According to the political scientist Marjorie Hershey,
a. The Federalist Party, the Democratic-Republican Party, and the Whig Party have not been active since the 19th century.
b. All of these.
c. The Democratic Party and Republican Party have dominated the Congress and the presidency since 1860.
d. There have been only five major political parties in all of US history.

47. Pluralists in the 19th century believed that
a. Interest groups would always form.
b. Interest groups would always pursue their own political interests vigorously.
c. No single interest would win or lose all of the time.
d. All of these.

48. “Blue Dog Democrats” are
a. Democrats from the “blue” states.
b. Democrats who support labor unions.
c. Democrats who are conservative on economic issues.
d. Liberal Democrats who always vote along party lines.

49. When women’s groups wanted to fight pregnancy discrimination in the 1970s,
a. All of these.
b. They chose a legislative and an executive strategy.
c. They went to Congress
d. They went to the the Equal Opportunity Commission (EEOC).

50. Small racial, ethnic, or religious groups in the US
a. Don't have quotas for seats in the schools or government as they do in India.
b. Do not have a party which is dedicated to their interests.
c. Do not have legislative representation as is the cases in other countries with proportional representation.

d. All of these.

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